ragged right; ragged left
Describes typeset copy in which word spacing is even and the lines of type align vertically along one margin but do not align along the other margin, so that one margin has a smooth edge and the other, an irregular, or ragged, edge. Text composed in this manner is also known as unjustified text or unjustified composition. Also known as flush left and flush right or flush left, ragged right and flush right, ragged left; in the U.K., also known as range left and range right. See also justified text.
range left, range right
ranging numerals, ranging figures
See lining numerals.
A characteristic of type that indicates the degree of comfort or ease with which text may be read. Generally measured by comprehension, also by the length of time that a reader can read a passage without strain. Some sources include this characteristic in general discussions of legibility. See also legibility.
See component glyph.
reference lines, left and right
In computer-aided type design, vertical lines used as design aids that define the left and right edges of a character's width, which usually includes spaces to the left and right of the character. See also side bearings, side spaces.
Symbols that are often inserted in a text, table, or chemical or mathematical work, whose main purpose is to direct the reader's attention elsewhere to an annotation, typically at the foot or side of a page or at the end of a chapter. Marks are usually used in an order specified by style rules of the publisher.
See unit system.
The clarity or sharpness of an image produced by a screen, printer, or other presentation device. For screen images, resolution is generally measured as the number of pixels per given unit of measurement (such as centimeters or inches). For printers, many of which reproduce characters and images using closely spaced dots, resolution is measured by the number of dots per linear inch (dpi) produced by a given output device.
Resolution falls into three primary areas of definition. Coarse or low resolution, which typically applies to computer screens, ranges from 72 to 91 pixels per inch. Medium resolution, which is typically used in plain-paper laser printers, inkjet printers, and thermal transfer printers, ranges from 300 to 600 dpi. High resolution generally refers to 600 dpi and higher, although standard laser imagesetters use 1,200 to 2,400 dpi for type. As technology improves, these definitions are becoming blurred and are being constantly revised upward.
reverse, reversal, reverse out
Describes type that is in the color of the background on which it is printed or displayed, with filled-in areas consisting of the characters' counters and surrounding spaces, as opposed to the characters themselves. Type in reverse and knockout type are also used.
A term with several meanings. Most commonly describes a typeface that stands upright, as opposed to one that is sloped (such as an italic typeface) or oblique. Alternatively, a style of type inspired by stone-cut inscriptions of classical Rome, or a seriffed typeface as distinct from a sans serif. Some authors also use this term for a typeface of normal or book weight as opposed to a bold weight.
In computer-aided design, a technique used to create a complete form or image (such as a typographic character or part of a character) by turning (and sometimes repeating) another form or image around an axis. Related to the mathematical symmetry operation known as rotation.
Curved strokes of a character, as in O, C, G, o, c, and g.
A linear character typically used in the design of charts, forms, graphs, borders, or other graphic material. Also used for emphasis and to create graphic variety in typographic compositions. Rules may be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal and may vary in length, weight, and style.